As much as the predominance of a diversity of genres collected in essays in competitions and vestibular ones, those of argumentative aspect seem that they tend to stand out. Thus, it is an editorial, an argumentative letter, a dissertation proper, a manifesto, in short, the intention that guides any of these “requirements”, so to speak, is defined by evaluating the capacity of the candidate to discuss matters that surrounds the reality in which he lives, if he really shows himself as a well-informed citizen, capable of reflecting, of positioning himself as a unique being and endowed with his own opinions.
In this sense, assuming such a position, you, as the issuer, must adopt a well-defined, solid and consistent position, supported by objective, concrete facts, so as to make the speaker attribute to the discourse the reliability and, above all, as important as necessary.
Given this importance, the purpose of the article in question is to deal with one of the aspects “expendable” to its argumentative force, to the point of view defended by you. It, in turn, is defined by the so-called commonplace. In order to understand it better, it is necessary to assume that in establishing familiarity with a particular text, the least one expects is that it makes sense to us as readers, that it brings, that it adds an additional notion to the knowledge we should have.
It is precisely in this sense that the commonplace comes into play, which is nothing more than those supposed “truths” which, when we read or hear them, have the feeling of having listened to them for a variety of times. Thus, instead of a reflection, what is actually attested is something related to a “universal wisdom”, something that is indisputable – the fruit of a knowledge that is passed from generation to generation, from a collective idea and not from who emits it, and who, sadly, end up populating our speeches, whether in orality or in writing.
So, in the face of such elucidations, we want to make it clear that there is an urgent need to opt for the search for information, which is available through reading good sources, contact with other information media, such as those disclosed in electronic or print media, such as newspapers. Not to mention the importance of always being in contact with people who are more influential, experienced and endowed with more advanced knowledge.
3 Textual types
The textual types, or textual typology, present intrinsic linguistic properties in which the diverse genders are supported.
We call textual types the set of statements organized in a well-defined structure, easily recognized by their preponderant characteristics. They can vary between five and nine types, and the most studied are narration, argumentation, description, injunction and exposure.
The textual typology, unlike what happens with textual genres, presents intrinsic linguistic properties, such as vocabulary, logical relations, verbal tenses, phrasal constructions and other characteristics that define the genres. These, in turn, arise from the dynamism of socio-communicative relations and the need of speakers in a given cultural context, while types are already defined, ready to receive the various genres in their structure. Note the definition of each type and its examples. Good studies!
Narration: The main characteristic of a narration is to tell a story, fictional or otherwise, usually contextualized in a time and space, in which characters move. The genres that appropriate the narrative structure are: tales, chronicles, fables, novels, biographies, etc.
“[…] The next day I went to his house, literally running. She did not live in a house like me, but in a house. You did not send me in. ” Looking right into my eyes, she told me that she had loaned the book to another girl, and that I came back the next day to get it. Grobed, I left slowly, but soon the hope again took me all and I started again on the street jumping, which was my strange way of walking the streets of Recife. This time I did not even fall: the promise of the book guided me, the next day would come, the next days would be my whole life later, the love for the world awaited me, I jumped the streets as always and did not fall once [.. .] “. (Fragment of the clandestine Happiness tale, by Clarice Lispector).
Dissertation: The argumentative text is an opinion text, whose ideas are developed through argumentative strategies that have the purpose of convincing the interlocutor. The genres that appropriate the structure of the essay are: essay, argumentative letter, dissertation-argumentative, editorial, etc.
“[…] The sudden praise of our judiciary serves to cover up the factual truth, beginning with the use of opposing weights and measures in the judgment of the most diverse kinds of political corruption. Even the mineral world knows of this singular situation, whereby the great house enjoys the leniency of Justice at all levels of activity. (Fragment of an editorial published in Carta Capital magazine).
Exhibition: Its purpose is to present information about a specific object or fact, enumerating its characteristics through a clear and concise language. The genres that appropriate the expository structure are: reportage, abstract, file, scientific article, seminar, etc.
“[…] In Poá, a metropolitan region of São Paulo, four women develop the difficult and honorable mission of commanding, each one, a house with nine children. Calls from mothers-to-be, they are permanent caregivers of children who have been deprived of their homes because of mistreatment, abuse or lack of care […] “. (Fragment of a report published in Carta Capital magazine).
Injunction: The injunction texts are intended to instruct the interlocutor, using verbs in the imperative to achieve their purpose. The genera that appropriate the injunctive structure are: instruction manual, culinary recipes, package inserts, regulations, edicts, etc.
“[…] Do not install or use the computer in hot, cold, dusty, humid or vibration-prone locations. Do not expose the computer to shocks, bumps or vibrations, and to prevent it from falling, so as not to damage the internal parts … “. (Operating Instructions for a Computer).
Description: Descriptive texts are intended to objectively or subjectively describe things, people or situations. The genres that appropriate the descriptive structure are: report, report, minutes, travel guide, etc. They can also be found in literary texts through subjective description:
“[…] She was fat, short, freckled, and had excessively curly hair. It had a huge bust, while we were all still flat. As if that were not enough she filled the two pockets of her blouse over her bust with bullets. But he had what any story-eating child would want: a bookstore-owning father. […] “. (Fragment of the clandestine Happiness tale, by Clarice Lispector).
“[…] It is in the high part that stands the colorful Pelourinho, historic quarter and listed by Unesco as a World Heritage Site. Hundreds of seventeenth and eighteenth-century mansions that lodge from museums to candomblé terreiros, as well as Catholic temples that attract scholars from all over the world – is the case of the church of San Francisco, considered the richest baroque work of the parents […]”. (Objective description of a travel guide).